How does PSTEC work?

The Subconscious Mind, Pattern Recognition, Deep Learning And PSTEC

IMPORTANT: This page offers an explanation as to why PSTEC Works as it does. You do NOT need to understand the theory in order to use PSTEC. This page is simply for the curious so they can see what went into creating the PSTEC tools and why they work so amazingly well.

It is not a coincidence that Tim, the creator of PSTEC is not just interested in people and the human mind but he has also long maintained an interest in machine learning and artificial intelligence. (Amongst other things Tim is a Chartered Member of the British Computer Society). PSTEC is a fusion of several disciplines in order to create tools to help people.

Behavioural psychology began more than 100 years ago and it demonstrated predictable patterns and almost computer like handling of information within the brain. Artificial intelligence through the use of neural nets has been seeking to mimic aspects of the brain for decades. AI research has shed light on the way the brain almost certainly functions and has inderectly indicated ways in which the subconscious can be encouraged to create rapid change. PSTEC is a fusion of a special form of suggestion, psychological principles and also things drawn from machine learning principles all rolled together. This was been done in order to create something truly amazing. Do try the free self help system because you will almost certainly be amazed. Many people wonder how it is that PSTEC can eliminate such things as phobias in minutes and also with such astonishing predictability. Below is an explanation.

First I will need to discuss computer learning and also to explain at a very high level how the subconscious learns and makes changes. (For more information study PSTEC Level 1 and also the Advanced PSTEC tutorial.)

You may not know it but recent advances in artificial intelligence have spawned something called "Deep Learning". Deep Learning is a huge leap forward for machine and computer learning and it has particular relevance here. With the application of Deep Learning, computers now have the ability to make sense of language without being taught, and also to do such things as describe the contents of previously unseen pictures in words. This had never been possible using other techniques but it has recently happened because of the advent of the Deep Learning methodology.

You can think of Deep Learning as being the most successful attempt yet to mimic the way the human brain learns and understands. Rather than using complex highly job specific computer code, Deep Learning applies a relatively simple generic learning algorithm to huge quantities of data.

Essentially it is a way to allow computers to identify patterns in complexity and to make sense of that complexity. Pattern recognition allows for new data to be quickly classified and "made sense of". In a similar way the human subconscious uses powerful pattern matching methods to make sense of huge amounts of sensory, linguistic and other information. This is how we build our internal realities.

Deep Learning uses a relatively simple learning algorithm combined with what is called "Big Data". Big Data is essentially a lot of input. It is supplied in large quantities so that the patterns can be most fully identified.

PSTEC does something similar. PSTEC delivers a lot of patterned information to the subconscious in a short time. The subconscious makes sense of the patterns contained within the PSTEC audio, and from that it creates a new understanding. This is one reason why PSTEC can very quickly eliminate emotional and other problems.

PSTEC is of course designed to work with people so it also combines a variety of existing and well researched psychological principles in a highly focussed, and very particular way. These well known and well documented psychological components are primarily, pattern interrupts, conditioned responses and suggestion but many other psychological principles are incorporated too. (Attached below is a list of scientific studies and psychological research papers which will help you to understand some of the the structures on which PSTEC is based)
The particular mix, precision timing, skilful integration and minute attention to detail in the construction of the PSTEC audios is what sets PSTEC apart from ALL other ways of changing beliefs and emotional states. All of this is combined and delivered as Big Data for the subconscious. Added to this Tim is also an expert on hypnosis and suggestion and so he has maximised the potential of very word within the tools. They even make use of pauses and silences too. This is how PSTEC was put together in order to create the fastest and most effective tools possible. Tim has continued push the boundaries with PSTEC in order to help people as fully and as much as possible and if you explore the comments from people all over the world who use it, many of them clearly believe that PSTEC borders on the miraculous in terms of results. Despite this, he is currently working on other tools and further enhancements which will do even more.

As such and before I explain further, I do advise you to study the user feedback on the site. You'll get an end user perspective on just how powerful this combination really is and why you can expect it to work for you too. Because of the way PSTEC is set up, anyone can confirm for themselves that PSTEC works and this validation can be done at no cost.

The explanation here just covers the standard free tracks. There are even more powerful tracks and some have already been mentioned but there are a number of others. The PSTEC EEfs, Click Track 2015, PSTEC Negative, (The Belief Eraser), Cascade Release, and the PSTEC Accelerators are even more sophisticated and they use additional but similar principles.

The basic PSTEC audio combines a conditioning of responses* with pattern interrupts* and a unique form of deep suggestion to create a rapid and lasting release from any problem feeling or emotion. We call it Deep Suggestion because of it's relationship to machine Deep Learning.

(*Anyone wishing to know about conditioned responses* should read about the Nobel Prize winning research of Ivan Petrovich Pavlov.)

(**Pattern interrupts interfere with conditioned neurological responses in order to open up new possibilities. For a reasonably clear explanation of pattern interrupts, Edward de Bono's classic book "Mechanism of Mind" is a good place to begin.)

Please bear in mind that a process similar to Deep Learning process is under-way at the same time as all that follows. Firstly, the PSTEC Click Track audio technology provides a very powerful and repetitive pattern interrupt. This can be helpful of itself in dealing with anything "ingrained". This pattern interrupt creates a search for meaning in the subconsious and highly activates it. This is however just the first step. There is much more to the process and it works on many other levels (not all of them covered here so as to keep this explanation relativelty simple.)

The percussive sounds on the audio perform very specific functions the most important of which are listed below.
1) They create a concentrative and essentially emotionally neutral state at very specific points on the track.
2) They repetitively condition the concentrative mental state being experienced (at the appropriate times) and those conditioned responses are then used as a direct means to obliterate the problem feelings (at other points on the track).
3) The percussive sounds are designed to maintain a level of user focus on the problem in a specific way and by very careful timing this also provides an effective critical factor bypass at important moments.

There are three primary sounds and these all perform the function mentioned above. Having three working in unison means that each one backs up the functioning of the other.

The tone is actually two tones played together as one. This has been done for two reasons. This is partly to make it easier for anyone with a hearing impairment. The second and more significant reason is so as to provide at least one stimulus which is completely outside of conscious awareness.

You will notice that what we are describing here is the delivery of a lot of data (Big Data) for the subconscious mind to process. Rather than being supplied completely unstructured it is highly patterned in its delivery so as to allow the subconscious to make sense of it quickly and easily.

The frequency of the clicks was initially optimised by educated guesswork and then fine tuned by means of experimentation. I now use an algorithmic process to determine the precise timing for each sound in relation to the spoken content. This careful timing is absolutely crucial for the tracks to work in the way that they do, and successive generations of the track have become ever more powerful as the algorithm has been improved.

The primary reason for using sounds to trigger physical actions, aside from the reasons already mentioned above is that the process is not just acoustic. It is also tactile and muscular. There is another very important reason for using sounds rather than something such as a visual stimulus and this relates to the speed with which the brain processes these relative types of information. A visual stimulus would be too fast.

The suggestions on the track are given in very specific way so as to deliver the maximum new linguistic programming to the subconscious mind in any given play of the track. (Whilst most people do not realise it, the interpretation of language is fundamental to the way in which people build their internal realities.)

The suggestions are cyclic and are used in such a way as to create what I would describe as being a "leak proof linguistic matrix". This language is much like a contract in as much as it specifies things comprehensively. Processing is enhanced by the fact that the user experiences what is being suggested which provides direct and immediate corroboration.

I have considered carefully what neuroscientists believe to be required for new neural connections to be made and this has been factored into the structuring of the process. Because people vary significantly there are additional repetitions over and above what should be required.

The reasons for the specific frequency, duration and the timing of particular click/tone combinations is just far too complex to explain here. The relationship between the sounds and the language is extremely precise. I use an algorithm to determine the optimum spacing, frequencies, and dispersion relative to spoken content.

To most people this probably sounds extremely complicated which is why I haven't gone into more detail. Despite this the explanation given here is far from complete and highly simplified. The timing aspects are the most complex of all, and there are other aspects to the process which are not covered here at all.

Some of the other factors which would also need to be explained to fully comprehend why PSTEC is so hugely powerful, include the concepts of "overload", "overflow", "diversionary language", "retrospective frames", "subconscious interpolation processes", "buffering of language", "linguistic parallels", "experiential conversions to belief", "repetitive confirmations", "linguisitic compression" and also the concept of "stacks" which is explained in the advanced audio. There is a lot to understanding how the Click Tracks work in what can seem to be such a miraculous manner.

There are a number of other PSTEC audios and techniques which utilise similar, but on the other PSTEC tracks they are combined in different ways and some additional techniques are used. This simplified explanation just covers the standard free process.

Understanding how PSTEC works is not necessary in order to get results. You will discover it works anyway and this can be determined by using the free process. The above explanation has been given mostly for anyone who wants to understand why so many people find PSTEC so astonishingly effective.

The latest research on PSTEC
87% of therapists, counsellors and coaches rated PSTEC as being VERY effective.
(Survey undertaken August 2011). Full survey details here

PSTEC is based on well known and well documented psychological principles and research. Anyone wishing to further their knowledge can consult the extensive literature and psychological papers on the psychological principles in use, some of which is listed below. The Deep Learning methodology can be explored via a number of highly informative YouTube videos. /b>

Abbot, N. C., Stead, L.F., White, A. R., Barnes, J. (1998) Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD001008. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD001008

Alladin, A. (2009). Evidence-based cognitive hypnotherapy for depression. Contemporary Hypnosis, 26(4). 245-262.

Allison, D. B., Faith, M. S. (1996). Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy for obesity: A meta-analytic reappraisal. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 513-516.

Banyai, E. I., Hilgard, E. R. (1976). A comparison of active-alert hypnotic induction with traditional relaxation induction. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85(2), 218-224.

Bär, K. J., Gaser, C., Nenadic, I., Sauer, H. (2002). Transient activation of a somatosensory area in painful hallucinations shown by fMRI. NeuroReport, 13(6), 1-4.

Barabasz, M., Spiegel, D. (1989). Hypnotizability and weight loss in obese subjects. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 8, 335-341.

Barber, T. X., Wilson, S. C. (1978). The Barber Suggestibility Scale and the Creative Imagination Scale: Experimental and clinical applications. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 21: 84-108.

Barnier, A. J. (2002). Post-hypnotic amnesia for autobiographical episodes: a laboratory model of functional amnesia? Psychological Science, 13: 232-7.

Barnier, A. M., McConkey, K. M. (2004). Defining and identifying the highly hypnotizable person. In: M. Heap, R. J. Brown, D. A. Oakley (Eds.), The Highly Hypnotizable Person. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Barnier, A. J., McConkey, K. M. (2003). Hypnosis, human nature and complexity: integrating neuroscience approaches into hypnosis research. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 51: 282-308.

Barnier, A. J., Nash, M. R. (2008). Introduction: a roadmap for explanation, a working definition. In M. R. Nash & A. J. Barnier (eds). The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis: Theory, Research and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Beck, A. T., Alford, B. A. (2009). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press

Benham, G., Bowers, S., Nash, M., Muenchen, R. (1998). Self-fulfilling prophecy and hypnotic response are not the same thing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 1604-1613.

Beilock, S. & Carr, TH. (2001). On the fragility of skilled performance: What governs choking under pressure? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (Vol.130, No.4).

Bernstein, E. M., & Putnam, F. W. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174, 727–735.

Blakemore, S-J., Oakley, D. A., Frith, C. D. (2003). Delusions of alien control in the human brain. Neuropsychologia, 41: 1058-67.

Bolocofsky, D. N., Spinler, D., Coulthard-Morris, L. (1985). Effectiveness of hypnosis as an adjunct to behavioural weight management. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 35-41.

Borkovec, T. D., Fowles, D. C. (1973). Controlled investigation of the effects of progressive and hypnotic relaxation on insomnia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82(1), 153-158.

Bornstein, P. H., Devine, D. A. (1980). Covert modeling-hypnosis in the treatment of obesity. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, and Practice, 17, 272-276.

Bowers, K. S. (1992). Imagination and dissociation in hypnotic responding. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 40, 253-275.

Bowers, K. S. (1993). The Waterloo-Stanford Group C (WSGC) scale of hypnotic susceptibility: Normative and comparative data. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 41, 35-46.

Bowers, K. S. (1998). Waterloo-Stanford Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form C: Manual and Response Booklet. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 46(3), 250-268.

Braffman, W., Kirsch, I. (2001). Reaction time as a predictor of imaginative suggestibility and hypnotizability. Contemporary Hypnosis, 18(3), 107-119.

Braid, J. (1943). Neurohypnology or the rationale of nervous sleep considered in relation with animal magnetism. London.

British Psychological Society. (2001). The Nature of Hypnosis: A report prepared by a Working Party at the request of the Professional Affairs Board of the British Psychological Society.

Brown, R. J. (1999). An integrative cognitive theory of suggestion and hypnosis. Unpublished PhD thesis, University College London.

Brown, R. J., Oakley, D. A. (2004). An integrative cognitive theory of hypnosis and hypnotizability. In: M. Heap, R. J. Brown, D. A. Oakley (Eds.), The Highly Hypnotizable Person. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Bryant, R. A., Kourch, M. (2001). Hypnotically-induced emotional numbing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 49, 220-230.

Bryant, R. A. (2005). Hypnotic emotional numbing: A study of implicit emotion. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 53, 26-36.

Bryant, R. A., Kapur, A. (2006). Hypnotically-induced emotional numbing: The roles of hypnosis and hypnotizability. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 54(3), 281-291.

Budman, SH & Gurman, AS; (2002). Theory & Practice of Brief Therapy; New York; Guilford Press.

Cash, T. F., Brown, T. A. (1987). Body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Behaviour Modification, 11(4), 487-521.

Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., Przybeck, T. R. (1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50(12), 975-990.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Cojan, Y., Waber, L., Schwartz, S., Rossier, L., Forster, A., Vuilleumier, P. (2009). The brain under self-control: Modulation of inhibitory and monitoring cortical networks during hypnotic paralysis. Neuron, 62, 862-875.

Council, J. R., Kirsch, I., Grant, D. L. (1996). Imagination, expectancy, and hypnotic responding. In: R. G. Kunzendorf, N. P. Spanos and B. Wallace (Eds.), Hypnosis and Imagination (pp. 41-65), New York: Baywood.

Covino, N. A., Bottari, M. (2001). Hypnosis, behavioural theory, and smoking cessation. Journal of Dental Education, 65(4), 340-347.

Crawford, H. J., Gur, R. C., Skolnick, B., Gur, R. E., Benson, D. M. (1993). Effects of hypnosis on regional cerebral blood flow during ischemic pain with and without suggested hypnotic analgesia. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 15, 181-195.

Dayan, P., Kakade, S., & Montague, P.R. (2000). Learning and selective attention. Nature Neuroscience, 3, 1218–1223

DeBono, Edward The Mechanism of Mind ISBN 0224617095 January, 1969

de Groh, M. (1989). Correlates of hypnotic susceptibility. In: N. P. Spanos., J. F. Chaves. Hypnosis: The Cognitive Behavioural Perspective. New York: Prometheus Books.

Deyoub, P. L., Wilkie, R. (1980). Suggestion with and without hypnotic induction in a weight reduction program. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 333-340.

Dienes, Z., & Perner, J. (2007). The cold control theory of hypnosis. In G. Jamieson (Ed.), Hypnosis and conscious states: The cognitive neuroscience perspective. Oxford University Press, pp 293-314.

Egner, T., Jamieson, G., Gruzelier, J. (2005). Hypnosis decouples cognitive control from conflict monitoring processes of the frontal lobe. NeuroImage, 27, 969-978.

Emmons, W. H., Simon, C. W. (1955). The non-recall of material presented during sleep. The American Journal of Psychology, 69, 76-81

Erhard, H. W., Mendl, M., Christiansen, S. B. (1999). Individual differences in tonic immobility may reflect behavioural strategies. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 64, 31-46.

Faith, M., Ray, W. J. (1994). Hypnotizability and dissociation in a college age population: orthogonal individual differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 211-216.

Faymonville, M. E., Mambourg, P. H., Joris, J., Vrijens, B., Fissette, J. Albert, A., Lamy, M. (1997). Psychological approaches during conscious sedation. Hypnosis versus stress reducing strategies: a prospective randomized study. Pain, 73, 361-367.

Faymonville, M. E., Laureys, S., Degueldre, C., Fiore, G. D., Luxen, A., Franck, G., Lamy, M., Maquet, P. (2000). Neural mechanisms of antinociceptive effects of hypnosis. Anesthesiology, 92, 1257-1267.

Faymonville, M. E., Roediger, L., Fiore, G. D., Delgueldre, C., Phillips, C., Lamy, M., Luxen, A., Maquet, P., Laureys, S. (2003). Increased cerebral functional connectivity underlying the antinociceptive effects of hypnosis. Cognitive Brain Research, 17, 255-262.

Flammer, E., Bongartz, W. (2003). On the efficacy of hypnosis: A meta-analytic study. Contemporary Hypnosis, 20, 179-197.

Folz, E. L., While, L. E. (1962). Pain "relief" by frontal cingulotomy. Journal of Neurosurgery, 19: 89-100.

Fromm, E. (1979). The nature of hypnosis and other altered states of consciousness: An ego-psychological theory. In E. Fromm and R. Shor (eds), Hypnosis: Developments in Research and New Perspectives (pp. 81-103), New York: Aldine.

Fromm, E. (1990). Self-hypnosis: The Chicago paradigm. New York: The Guildford Press

Fromm, E. (1992). An ego-psychological theory of hypnosis. In E. Fromm and M. Nash (Eds), Contemporary Hypnosis Research (pp. 131-148), London, Guilford Press.

Furman, M & Gallow, FP. (2000). The Neurophysics of Human Behavior: Explorations at the Interface of Brain, Mind, Behavior, and Information. Boca Raton, Florida. CRC Press.

Gheorghiou, V. A., Polczyk, R., Kappeller, C. (2003). The Warmth Suggestibility Scale—a procedure for measuring the influence of suggestion on warmth sensations. Personality and Individual Differences, 34, 219-234.

Gorassini, D. R., Spanos, N. P. (1986). A cognitive-social skills approach to the successful modification of hypnotic suggestibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 1004-1012.

Gorassini, D. R. (2004). Enhancing hypnotizability. In M. Heap, R. J., Brown, D. A. Oakley. The Highly Hypnotizable Person, London: Routledge.

Gould, D; Dieffenbach, K & Moffett, A. (2001). Psychological talent and its development in Olympic champions. Unpublished final grant report, Coaching and Sport Sciences Division, US Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, Colorado.

Green, J. (2006) The five factor model of personality and hypnotizability: little variance in common. Contemporary Hypnosis, 21(4), 161-168

Green, J. P., Barabasz, A. F., Barrett, D., Montgomery, G. H. (2005). Forging ahead: the 2003 APA Division 30 definition of hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

Green, J. P., Lynn, S. J. (2000). Hypnosis and suggestion-based approaches to smoking cessation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48(2), 195-223.

Grove, J. & Lewis, M. (1996). Hypnotic susceptibility and the attainment of flowlike states during exercise. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 18, 380-391.

Gruzelier, J. H. (1990). Neurophysiological investigations of hypnosis: cerebral laterality and beyond. In: Van Dyck, R., Spinhoven, P. H., Van der Does, A. J. W. (Eds.), Hypnosis: Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Free University Press, pp. 38-51.

Gruzeler, J. H. (1998). A working model of the neurophysiology of hypnosis: A review of evidence. Contemporary Hypnosis, 15, 3-21.

Gudjonsson, G. H. (1984). A new scale of interrogative suggestibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 5(3), 303-314.

Halligan, P. W., Athwal, B. S., Oakley, D. A., Frackowiak, R. S. J. (2000). The functional anatomy of a hypnotic paralysis: implications for conversion hysteria. The Lancet, 356: 986-7.

Halsband, U., Mueller, S., Hinterberger, T., Strickner, S. (2009). Plasticity changes in the brain in hypnosis and meditation. Contemporary Hypnosis, 26(4), 194-215.

Hargadon, R., Bowers, K. S. Woody, E. Z. (1995). Does counterpain imagery mediate hypnotic analgesia? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104(3), 508-516.

Heap, M. (1996) The nature of hypnosis. The Psychologist, 9 (11), 498-501.

Heap, M., Brown, R. J., Oakley, D. A. (Eds.) (2004). The Highly Hypnotizable Person. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Heap, M., Aravind, K. (2002). Hartland's medical and dental hypnosis (4th edition). London: Harcourt.

Hilgard E. R. (1965). Hypnotic susceptibility. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.

Hilgard, E. R. (1991). A neodissociation interpretation of hypnosis. In SJ Lynn and JW Rhue, eds. Theories of hypnosis: current models and perspectives. pp. 83-104. New York, Guilford Press.

Hilgard, E. R. (1973). A neurodissociation interpretation of pain reduction in hypnosis. Psychological Review, 80,396-411.

Holmes, E. A., Brown, R. J., Mansell, W., Fearon, R. P., Hunter, E. C. M., Frasquilho, F., Oakley, D. (2005). Are there two qualitatively distinct forms of dissociation? A review and some clinical implications. Clinical Psychology Review, 225, 1-23.

Horton, J. E., Crawford, H. J., Harrington, G., Downs, J. H. (2004). Increased anterior corpus callosum size associated with hypnotizability and the ability to control pain. Brain, 127(8), 1741-1747.

Houghton L. A., Heyman D.J., Whorwell P.J. (1996). Symptomatology, quality of life and economic features of irritable bowel syndrome--the effect of hypnotherapy. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 10:1, 91-5.

Hull, C. L. (1933). Hypnosis and suggestibility: An experimental approach. New York: Applegate.

Hurwitz, T. D., Mahowald, M. W., Schenck, C. H., Schulter, J. L., Bundlie, S. R. (1991). A retrospective outcome study and review of hypnosis as treatment of adults with sleepwalking and sleep terror. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179(4), 228-233.

Hutchinson-Philips, S., Gow, K., Jamieson, G. A. (2007). Hypnotizability, eating behaviours, attitudes, and concerns: A literature survey. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 55, 84-113.

Iani, C., Ricci, F., Gherri, E., Rubichi, S. (2006). Hypnotic suggestion modulates cognitive conflict: The case of the Flanker compatibility effect. Psychological Science, 17(8), 721-727.

Jacobson, N. O., Silfverskiold, N. P. (1973). A controlled study of a hypnotic method in the treatment of alcoholism, with evaluation by objective criteria. British Journal of Addiction, 68, 25-31.

Jackson, S & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). Flow in Sports: The Keys to Optimal Experiences and Performances. Champaign, Ill., Human Kinetics Press.

Jami, S.A., Wright, W.G. & Glanzman, D.L. (2007). Differential Classical Conditioning of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia Recruits Both NMDA Receptor-Dependent Enhancement and NMDA Receptor-Dependent Depression of the Reflex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 27, 3064–3068.

Jamieson, G. A. (2007). Hypnosis and conscious states: the cognitive neuroscience perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jamieson, G. A., Woody, E. (2007). Dissociated control as a paradigm for cognitive neuroscience research and theorizing in hypnosis. In G. A. Jamieson (Ed), Hypnosis and conscious states: the cognitive neuroscience perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jamieson, G. A., Sheehan, P. W. (2002). A critical evaluation of the relationship between sustained attentional abilities and hypnotic susceptibility. Contemporary Hypnosis, 19, 62-74.

Kallio, S., Revonsuo, A., Hamalainen, H., Markela, J., Gruzelier, J. H. (2001). Anterior brain functions and hypnosis: a test of the frontal hypothesis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 49, 95-108.

Keefe, F. J., Lumley, M., Anderson, T., Lynch, T., Studts, J. L., Carson, K. L. (2001). Pain and emotion: new research directions. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57(4); 587-607.

Kelly, S. F., Fisher, S., Kelly, R. J. (1978). Effects of cannabis intoxication on primary suggestibility. Psychopharmacology, 56, 217-219.

Kihlstrom, J. F. (2008). The doman of hypnosis revisited. In M. R. Nash & A. J. Barnier (eds). The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis: Theory, Research and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kihlstrom, J. F. (1985). Hypnosis. Annual Review of Psychology, 36, 385-418.

Kirsch, I. (1996). Hypnotic enhancement of cognitive-behavioural weight-loss treatments - another meta-reanalysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 517-519.

Kirsch, I., Cardeña, E., Derbyshire, S., Dienes, Z., Heap, M., Kallio, S., Mazzoni, G., Naish, P., Oakley, D., Potter, C., Walters, V., Whalley, M. (2011). Definitions of Hypnosis and Hypnotizability and their Relation to Suggestion and Suggesitibility: A Consensus Statement. Contemporary Hypnosis (in press)

Kirsch, I., Lynn, S.J., Vigorito, M. & Miller, R.R. (2004). The role of cognition in classical and operant conditioning. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60, 369–392. Kirsch, I., Mazzoni, G., Montgomery, G. H. (2007). Remembrance of hypnosis past. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 49, 171-178.

Kirsch, I., Montgomery, G., & Sapirstein, G. (1995). Hypnosis as an adjunct to cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy: A meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 63, 214-220.

Kirsch, I., Lynn, S. J. (1997). Hypnotic involuntariness and the automaticity of everyday life. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 40, 329-348.

Kirsch, I., Wickless, C., Moffitt, K. H. (1999). Expectancy and suggestibility: Are the effects of environmental enhancement due to detection? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 47, 40-45.

Kirsch, I., Braffman, W. (2001). Imaginative suggestibility and hypnotizability. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4(2), 57-61.

Knox, V. J., Morgan, A. H., Hilgard, E. R. (1974). Pain and suffering in ischemia: the paradox of hypnotically suggested anesthesia as contradicted by reports from the 'hidden observer'. Archives of General Psychiatry, 30, 840-847.

Kosslyn, S. M., Thompson, W. L., Constantini-Ferrando, M. F., Alpert, N. M., Spiegel, D. (2000). Hypnotic visual illusion alters colour processing in the brain. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157: 1279-84.

Laidlaw, T. M., Dwivedi, P., Naito, A., Gruzelier, J. H. (2005). Low self-directedness (TCI), mood, schizotypy and hypnotic susceptibility. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, 469-480.

Lang, E. V., Benotsch, E. G., Fick, L. J., Lutgendorf, S., Berbaum, M. L., Berbaum, K. S., Logan, H., Spiegel, D. (2000). Adjunctive non-pharmacological analgesia for invasive medical procedures: a randomised trial. The Lancet, 355, 1486-1490.

Lichtenberg, P., Bachner-Melman, R., Gritsenko, I., Ebstein, R. P. (2000). Exploratory association study between catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) high/low enzyme activity polymorphism and hypnotizability. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 96(6), 771-774.

London, P. (1962). Children's Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Lynn, S. J., Rhue, J. W. (1988). 'Fantasy-proneness: Hypnosis, developmental antecedents, and psychopathology'. American Psychologist, 43, 35-44.

Lynn, S. J., Rhue, J. W., Weekes, J. (1990). An integrative model of hypnotic involuntariness. In van Dyck, Spinhoven, Van der Does, Van Rood, De Moor (Eds)., Hypnosis: Current Theory, Research and Practice. Amsterdam: VU University Press.

Lynn, S. J., Myer, E., Mackillop, J. (2000). The systematic study of negative post-hypnotic effects: Research hypnosis, clinical hypnosis and stage hypnosis. Contemporary Hypnosis, 17, 127-131.

Lynn, S. J., Kirsch, I., Barabasz, A., Cardeña, E., & Patterson, D. (2000). Hypnosis as an empirically supported clinical intervention: The state of the evidence and a look to the future. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48, 235-255.

Maquet, P., Faymonville, M. E., Degueldre, C., Delfiore, G., Franck, G., Luxen, A., Lamy, M. (1999). Functional neuroanatomy of hypnotic state. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 327-333.

Maser, J. D., Gallup, G. G. (1974). Tonic immobility in the chicken: Catalepsy potentiation by uncontrollable shock and alleviation by imipramine. Psychosomatic Medicine, 36(3), 199-205.

Mendelsohn, A., Chalamish, Y., Solomonovich, A., Dudai, Y. (2008). Mesmerizing memories: Brain substrates of episodic memory suppression in post-hypnotic amnesia. Neuron, 57, 159-170.

Mesmer, F. A. (1766). Dissertatio Physico-Medica de Planetarium Influxu. Vindobona

Miller, M. F., Barabasz, A. F., Barabasz, M. (1991). Effects of active alert and relaxation hypnotic inductions on cold pressor pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2), 223-226.

Montgomery, G. H., Bovbjerg, D. H., Schnur, J. B., David, D., Goldfarb, A., Weltz, C. R., Schechter, C., Graff-Zivin, J., Tatrow, K., Price, D. D., Siverstein, J. H. (2007). A randomized clinical trial of a brief hypnosis intervention to control side effects in breast surgery patients. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 99, 1304-1312.

Montgomery, G. H., David, D., Winkel, G., Siverstein, J. H., Bovbjerg, D. H. (2002). The effectiveness of adjunctive hypnosis with surgical patients: A meta-analysis. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 94(6), 1639-1645.

Montgomery, GH., DuHamel, KN., Redd WH. (2000). A meta-analysis of hypnotically induced analgesia: how effective is hypnosis? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 48(2), 138-53.

Morgan, A. H. (1973). The heritability of hypnotic susceptibility in twins. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 82, 55-61.

Norman, D.A. and Shallice, T. (1980/1986). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behaviour. Centre for Human Information Processing (Technical Report #99). Reprinted in revised form in Davidson, R.J., Schwartz, G.E., and Shapiro, D. (Eds.) (1986), Consciousness and Self-Regulation (Volume 4), New York: Plenum.

Oakley, D. A. (1999). Hypnosis and consciousness: A structural model. Contemporary Hypnosis, 16, 215-223.

Oakley, D. A. (2006). Hypnosis as a tool in research: experimental psychopathology. Contemporary Hypnosis, 23(1): 3-14.

Oakley, D. A., Deeley. Q., Halligan, P. W. (2007). Hypnotic depth and response to suggestion under standardized conditions and during fMRI scanning. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 55(1), 32-58.

O’Hanlon, WH, O’Hanlon, S & Bertolino B; (1999). Evolving Possibilities: Selected Papers of Bill O’Hanlon; Philadelphia, PA; Taylor & Francis Publishers.

Orne, M. T. (1962). On the social psychology of the psychological experiment: With particular reference to demand characteristics and their implications. American Psychologist, 17(11), 776-783.

Orne, M. T., Evans, F. J. (1965). Social control in the psychological experiment: Antisocial behaviour and hypnosis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 189-200.

Orne, M. T., & Evans, F. J. (1966). Inadvertent termination of hypnosis with hypnotized and simulating subjects. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 14, 61-78.

Palsson O.S., Turner M.J., Whitehead W.E. (2006). Hypnosis home treatment for irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 54(1):85-99.

Patterson, D. R., Jensen, M. P. (2003). Hypnosis and clinical pain. Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 129, pp. 495-521.

Pavlov, I.P. (1927). Conditioned Reflexes: An Investigation of the Physiological Activity of the Cerebral Cortex (translated by G.V. Anrep). London: Oxford University Press

Pekala, R. J., Maurer, R., Kumar, V. K., Elliott, N. C., Masten, E., Moon, E., Salinger, M. (2004). Self-hypnosis relapse prevention training with chronic drug/alcohol users: effects of self-esteem, affect, and relapse. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 46(4), 281-297.

Piccione, C., Hilgard, E. R., Zimbardo, P. G. (1989). On the degree of stability and measured hypnotizability over a 25-year period. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 289-295.

Raij, T. T., Numminen, J., Narvarnen, S., Hiltunen, J., Hari, R. (2005). Brain correlates of subjective reality of physically and psychologically induced pain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 2147-2151.

Raij, T. T., Numminen, J., Narvarnen, S., Hiltunen, J., Hari, R. (2009). Strength of prefrontal activation predicts intensity of suggestion-induced pain. Human Brain Mapping, 30, 2890-2897.

Rainville, P., Duncan, G. H., Price, D. D., Carrier, B., Bushnell, M. C. (1997). Pain affect encoded in the human anterior cingulate but not somatosensory cortex. Science, 277: 988-71.

Rainville, P., Hofbauer, R. K., Paus, T., Duncan, G. H., Bushnell, M. C., Price, D. D. (1999). Cerebral mechanisms of hypnotic induction and suggestion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 11(1), 110-125.

Rainville, P., Hofbauer, R. K., Bushnell, M. C., Dunca, G. H., Price, D. D. (2002). Hypnosis modulates activity in brain structures involved in the regulation of consciousness. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(6), 887-901.

Raz, A., Shapiro, T., Fan, J., POsner, M. I. (2002). Hypnotic suggestion and the modulation of Stroop interference. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1155-1161.

Raz, A., Fan, J., Posner, M. I. (2005). Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 9978-9983.

Raz, A., Kirsch, I., Pollard, J., Nitkin-Kaner, Y. (2006). Suggestion reduces the Stroop effect. Psychologcal Science, 17(2), 91-95.

Rescorla, R.A., & Wagner, A.R. (1972). A theory of Pavlovian conditioning. Variations in effectiveness of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. In A. Black & W.F. Prokasky, Jr. (eds.), Classical Conditioning II New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Reyher, J. (1962). A paradigm for determining the clinical relevance of hypnotically induced psychopathology. Psychological Bullletin, 59: 344-352.

Richards, J. M., Gross, J. J. (2000). Emotion regulation and memory: The cognitive costs of keeping one's cool. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79(3), 410-424

Roberts, L., Wilson, S., Singh, S., Roalfe, A., Greenfield, S. (2006). Gut-directed hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome: piloting a primary care-based randomised controlled trial. British Journal of General Practice, 56, 115-121.

Röder, C. H., Michal, M., Overbeck, van de Ven, V. G., Linden, D. E. J. (2007). Pain response in depersonalization: a functional imaging study using hypnosis in healthy subjects. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 115-121.

Rosen, S. (1982). Utilization of the “Teaching Tales” of Milton Erickson, MD , New York, WW Norton & Co.

Schiffrin, R. M., Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information-processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84, 127-190.

Schulz-Stübner, S., Krings, T., Meister, I. G., Rex, S., Thron, A., Rossaint, R. (2004). Clinical hypnosis modulates functional magnetic resonance imaging signal intensities and pain perception in a thermal stimulation paradigm. Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine, 29(6), 549-556.

Shekelle, P., Woolf, S., Eccles, M., Grimshaw, J. (2000). Developing guidelines. In M. Eccles & J. M. Grimshaw (Eds). Clinical Guidelines: From Conception to Use. Abingdon: Radcliffe Medical.

Shergill, S. S., Brammer, M. J., Williams, S. C. R., Murray, R. M., McGuire, P. K. (2000). Mapping auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 1033-1038.

Shor, R. E., Orne, E. C. (1962). Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility: Form A. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Silbersweig, D. A., Stera, E., Frith, C., Cahill, C., Holmes, A., Grootoonk, S., Seaward, J., McKenna, P., Chua, S. E., Schnorr, L., Jones, T., Frackowiak, R. S. J. (1995). A functional neuroanatomy of hallucinations in schizophrenia. Nature, 378(9), 176-179.

Sjoberg, B. M., Hollister, L. E. (1965). The effects of psychomimetic drugs on primary suggestibility. Psychopharmacology, 8, 251-262.

Spanos, N. P., Stam, H. J., D'Eon, J. L., Pawlak, A. E., Radtke-Bodorik, H. L. (1980). Effect of social-psychological variables on hypnotic analgesia. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 34(4), 737-750.

Spanos, N. P. (1986). Hypnosis and the modification of hypnotic susceptibility: A social psychological perspective. In P. Naish (ed.), What is hypnosis? (pp. 85-120), Philadelphia: Open University Press.

Spanos, N. P., Menary, E., Gabora, N. J., DuBreuil, S. C., Dewhirst, B. (1991). Secondary identity enactments during hypnotic past-life regression: A sociocognitive perspective. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 308-320.

Spelke, E., Hirst, W., Neisser, U. (1976). Skills of divided attention. Cognition, 4, 215-230.

Spiegel, H. (1970). A single treatment method to stop smoking using ancillary self-hypnosis. Intervational Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 22-29.

Spinhoven, P., Baak, D., van Dyck, R., et al (1988). The effectiveness of an authoritarian versus permissive style of hypnotic communication. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 36, 182-191.

Stead LF, Perera R, Lancaster T,. Telephone counselling for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2006, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD002850. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD002850.pub2

Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643-661.

Szechtman, H., Woody, E., Bowers, K. S., Nahmias, C. (1998). Where the imaginal appears real: a positron emission tomography study of auditory hallucinations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 95: 1956-60.

Tellegen, A. (1978/1979). On measures and conceptions of hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 21, 219-237.

Tellegen, A., & Atkinson, G. (1974). Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences ("absorption"), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83(3), 268-277.

Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Boly, M., Balteau, E., Schnakers, C., Moonen, G., Luxen, A., Lamy, M., Degueldre, C., Brichant, J. F., Maquet, P., Laureys, S., Faymonville, M. E. (2009). Pain and non-pain processing during hypnosis: A thalium-YAG event-related fMRI study. NeuroImage, 47, 1047-1054.

Völgyesi, F. A. (1966). Hypnosis of man and animals. London: Billing & Sons Ltd.

Wadden, T. A., Flaxman, J. (1981). Hypnosis and weight loss: A preliminary study. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 29, 162-173.

Wegner, D. M., Erber, R., Zanakos, S. (1993). Ironic processes in the mental control of mood and mood-related thoughts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 1093-1104.

Weitzenhoffer, A. M., Higard, E. R. (1959). Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Forms A and B. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Weitzenhoffer, A. M., Higard, E. R. (1962). Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Forms C. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Weitzenhoffer, A. M., Higard, E. R. (1963). Stanford Profile Scales of Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Forms I and II. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Weitzenhoffer, A. M., Higard, E. R. (1967). Revised Stanford Profile Scales of Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale: Forms I and II. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Wetizenhoffer, A. M. (1980). Hypnotic susceptibility revisited. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 22, 130-146.

Whorwell P. J., Prior A, Faragher E.B. (1984). Controlled trial of hypnotherapy in the treatment of severe refractory irritable-bowel syndrome.The Lancet, 2: 1232-4.

Wickless, C., Kirsch, I. (1989). Effects of verbal and experiential expectancy manipulations on hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 762-768.

Wickramasekera II, I. E., Szlyk, J. P. (2003). Could empathy be a predictor of hypnotic ability? International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 51(4), 390-399.

Wik, G., Fischer, H., Bragee, B., Finer, B., Fredrikson, M. (1999). Functional anatomy of hypnotic analgesia: a PET study of patients with fibromyalgia. European Journal of Pain, 3, 7-12.

Woody, E., Bowers, K. (1994). A frontal assault on dissociated control. In: Lynn, S. J., Rhue, J. W. (Eds.), Dissociation: Clinical and Theoretical Perspectives. Guilford Press, New York, USA, pp. 52-79.

Woody, E. Z., Sadler, P. (2008). Dissociation theories of hypnosis. In M. R. Nash & A. J. Barnier (eds). The Oxford Handbook of Hypnosis: Theory, Research and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Yapko, M. D. (2010). Hypnosis in the treatment of depression: An overdue approach for encouraging skillful mood management. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 58(2), 137-146.

Zachariae, R., Andersen, O. K., Bjerring, P., Jorgensen, M. M. (1998). Effects of an opioid antagonist on pain intensity and withdrawal reflexes during induction of hypnotic analgesia in high- and low-hypnotizable volunteers. European Journal of Pain, 2, 25-34.

© Copyright 2015 PSTEC Worldwide Ltd
Unless otherwise stated views expressed are those of the author